The photo below is of the Nut & Bolt plant and is one of the few full plant shots I have found on the internet. It is undated but it was taken from the Terminal Tower so it has to be after 1930. DK Yard is clearly visible from the rolling lift bridge in the lower right corner through to the left side of the photo. The Carter Road lift bridge, which should be sitting adjacent to and on this side of the railroad bridge, has not been built yet so the photo is definitely prior to 1939. The 5 open hearth furnaces are the 5 tall thin stacks attached to the large building in left center and spaced wider than any of the others. Since this is well before any environmental emission regulations, I would expect the open hearth stacks to be spewing smoke. The steelworker's labor union conducted a strike in 1937 which became known as the Little Steel Strike of 1937. This plant was impacted heavily by that strike until World War II in 1942 when the strike ended (unsuccessfully for the labor union) and operations resumed again for the war effort. Only minimal operations were conducted by "scab" workers during the strike, so that could explain why the open hearths appear to be shut down. So, my best guess on this photo is sometime in the 1937-1939 time frame.
|Photo: From the Cuyahoga County Engineer's Photography Collection, Cleveland Memory Project.|
This is pretty much all I have found reference the plant. It traces its beginnings back to 1872 as the Cleveland Nut Company. It became Upson Nut Company in 1883 after some mergers with other companies in Cleveland and also in Connecticut. Upson purchased some of the land surrounding the plant including an ore unloading dock and also a pig iron and blast furnace from the Cleveland Iron Company which was next to the plant on Carter Road. By 1905 Upson Nut was America's leading nut & bolt manufacturer. In 1910 Upson constructed the 1200' x 135' building which housed the 5 open hearth furnaces, meaning that now Upson Nut had its own fully integrated steel mill and bolt & nut factory all in one place. In the 1920's the rest of the factory buildings were constructed and the photo above represents the facility at the height of its existence. In 1930, Republic Steel purchased Upson Nut & Bolt and it became the Republic Steel Bolt & Nut Division. The facility operated until the 1960's when competition from foreign producers, higher wages, and environmental regulations caused Republic Steel to start the slippery slope downward.
On my layout, the Bolt & Nut plant will be operating at full capacity in the mid-1950's/1960's.